The Gall—Peters projection is a rectangular map projection that maps all areas such that they have the correct sizes relative to each other.
Like any equal-area projection , it achieves this goal by distorting most shapes. The projection is named after James Gall and Arno Peters.
Gall is credited with describing the projection in at a science convention. He published a paper on it in The name "Gall—Peters projection" seems to have been used first by Arthur H.
The Peters Projection and Mercator Map
Robinson in a pamphlet put out by the American Cartographic Association in The Gall—Peters projection achieved notoriety in the late 20th century as the centerpiece of a controversy about the political implications of map design. Hence the sphere is mapped onto the vertical cylinder, and the cylinder is stretched to double its length. The stretch factor, 2 in this case, is what distinguishes the variations of cylindric equal-area projection.
The various specializations of the cylindric equal-area projection differ only in the ratio of the vertical to horizontal axis. This ratio determines the standard parallel of the projection, which is the parallel at which there is no distortion and along which distances match the stated scale.
There are always two standard parallels on the cylindric equal-area projection, each at the same distance north and south of the equator.
Several other specializations of the equal-area cylindric have been described, promoted, or otherwise named. The Gall—Peters projection was first described in by clergyman James Gall , who presented it along with two other projections at the Glasgow meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science the BA. He gave it the name "orthographic" and formally published his work in in the Scottish Geographical Magazine. In recent years "Gall—Peters" seems to dominate. In , Arno Peters , a German filmmaker, devised a map projection identical to Gall's orthographic projection and presented it in as a "new invention".
He promoted it as a superior alternative to the Mercator projection , which was suited to navigation but also used commonly in world maps. The Mercator projection increasingly inflates the sizes of regions according to their distance from the equator.
This inflation results, for example, in a representation of Greenland that is larger than Africa , which has a geographic area 14 times greater than Greenland's.
Since much of the technologically underdeveloped world lies near the equator, these countries appear smaller on a Mercator and therefore, according to Peters, seem less significant. By using his "new" projection, Peters argued that poorer, less powerful nations could be restored to their rightful proportions. This reasoning has been picked up by many educational and religious bodies, leading to adoption of the Gall—Peters projection among some socially concerned groups, including Oxfam,  National Council of Churches ,  New Internationalist magazine,  and the Mennonite Central Committee.
At first, the cartographic community largely ignored Peters's foray into cartography. The preceding century had already witnessed many campaigns for new projections with little visible result. Just twenty years earlier, for example, Trystan Edwards described and promoted his own eponymous projection, disparaging the Mercator, and recommending his projection as the solution.
More problematic, Peters's projection was identical to one that was already over a century old, though he probably did not realize it. Beyond the lack of novelty in the projection itself, the claims Peters made about the projection were also familiar to cartographers.
Just as in the case of Peters, earlier projections generally were promoted as alternatives to the Mercator. Inappropriate use of the Mercator projection in world maps and the size disparities figuring prominently in Peters's arguments against the Mercator projection had been remarked upon for centuries and quite commonly in the 20th century.
Even Peters's politicized interpretation of the common use of Mercator was nothing new, with Kelloway's text mentioning a similar controversy. Cartographers had long despaired over publishers' inapt use of the Mercator.
Although its usage Peters, however, launched his campaign in a different world from that of Edwards. He announced his map at a time when themes of social justice resonated strongly in academia and politics.
World map peters projection pdf to excel
Suggesting " cartographic imperialism ", Peters found ready audiences. The campaign was bolstered by the claim that the Peters projection was the only "area-correct" map. Other claims included "absolute angle conformality", "no extreme distortions of form", and "totally distance-factual".
All of those claims were erroneous. In any case, Mercator was not the pervasive projection Peters made it out to be: a wide variety of projections has always been used in world maps. Several scholars have remarked on the irony of the projection's undistorted presentation of the mid latitudes, including Peters's native Germany, at the expense of the low latitudes, which host more of the technologically underdeveloped nations.
No world projection is good at preserving distances everywhere; Peters's and all other cylindric projections are especially bad in that regard because east-west distances inevitably balloon toward the poles. The cartographic community met Peters's press conference with amusement and mild exasperation, but little activity beyond a few articles commenting on the technical aspects of Peters's claims.
In the ensuing years, however, it became clear that Peters and his map were no flash in the pan. By many cartographers had turned overtly hostile to his claims.
In particular, Peters writes in The New Cartography ,. Philosophers, astronomers, historians, popes and mathematicians have all drawn global maps long before cartographers as such existed. Cartographers appeared in the "Age of Discovery", which developed into the Age of European Conquest and Exploitation and took over the task of making maps. By the authority of their profession they have hindered its development. Since Mercator produced his global map over four hundred years ago for the age of Europeans world domination, cartographers have clung to it despite its having been long outdated by events.
They have sought to render it topical by cosmetic corrections. The European world concept, as the last expression of a subjective global view of primitive peoples, must give way to an objective global concept. The cartographic profession is, by its retention of old precepts based on the Eurocentric global concept, incapable of developing this egalitarian world map which alone can demonstrate the parity of all peoples of the earth.
This attack galled the cartographic community. Their most emphatic refutation of Peters's assertions was the long list of cartographers who, over the preceding century, had formally expressed frustration at publishers' overuse of the Mercator, as noted above. Robinson Robinson projection. Hence the cartographic community viewed Peters's narrative as ahistorical and mean-spirited.
We have been misled by a flawed world map for 500 years
The two camps never made any real attempts toward reconciliation. The Peters camp largely ignored the protests of the cartographers. Peters maintained there should be "one map for one world"  —his—and did not acknowledge the prior art of Gall  until the controversy had largely run its course, late in his life. While Peters likely reinvented the projection independently, his unscholarly conduct and refusal to engage the cartographic community undoubtedly contributed to the polarization and impasse.
Frustrated by some very visible successes and mounting publicity stirred up by the industry that had sprung up around the Peters map, the cartographic community began to plan more coordinated efforts to restore balance, as they saw it.
The s saw a flurry of literature directed against the Peters phenomenon. Though Peters's map was not singled out, the controversy motivated the American Cartographic Association now Cartography and Geographic Information Society to produce a series of booklets including Which Map Is Best  designed to educate the public about map projections and distortion in maps.
PETERS PROJECTION MAP
In and , after some internal debate, seven North American geographic organizations adopted the following resolution,   which rejected all rectangular world maps, a category that includes both the Mercator and the Gall—Peters projections:.
WHEREAS, flat world maps are more useful than globe maps, but flattening the globe surface necessarily greatly changes the appearance of Earth's features and coordinate systems, and.
WHEREAS, world maps have a powerful and lasting effect on people's impressions of the shapes and sizes of lands and seas, their arrangement, and the nature of the coordinate system, and.
THEREFORE, we strongly urge book and map publishers, the media and government agencies to cease using rectangular world maps for general purposes or artistic displays. Such maps promote serious, erroneous conceptions by severely distorting large sections of the world, by showing the round Earth as having straight edges and sharp corners, by representing most distances and direct routes incorrectly, and by portraying the circular coordinate system as a squared grid.
The most widely displayed rectangular world map is the Mercator in fact a navigational diagram devised for nautical charts , but other rectangular world maps proposed as replacements for the Mercator also display a greatly distorted image of the spherical Earth. The geographic and cartographic communities did not unanimously disparage the Peters World Map.
Some cartographers, including J. Brian Harley , have credited the Peters phenomenon with demonstrating the social implications of map projections, at the very least. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Peters projection map. Greenwich great circle.
Is Either Better Than the Other?
Bering Strait great circle traversing Florence in Italy, see Florence meridian. This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Scottish Geographical Magazine. Which Map is Best p. The Grid Book. The Guardian. Retrieved March 19, An Album of Map Projections p.
Washington, D. Geological Survey Professional Paper Mathematical properties of the Gall—Peters and related projections.
WHAT IS THE PETERS MAP
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Thorough treatment of the social history of the Mercator projection and Gall—Peters projections. Monograph describing an equal-area cylindric projection and its virtues, specifically disparaging Mercator's projection.
Archived from the original on Retrieved May Coordinate Systems and Map Projections , second edition, second printing, p. Oxford: Pergamon Press. A New Map of the World.