He was the first Guru of the fifteenth century in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The history of Sikhism is closely associated with the history of Punjab and the socio-political situation in 16th-century Northwestern Indian subcontinent. Since the Mughal rule of India by Emperor Jahangir , Sikhism was in conflict with its laws, because they were affecting political successions of Mughals while cherishing saints from Islam.
Many prominent Sikhs were killed by Mughal rulers for refusing to their orders,  and for opposing the persecution of Sikhs. The emergence of the Sikh Confederacy under the misls and Sikh Empire under reign of the Maharajah Ranjit Singh was characterised by religious tolerance and pluralism with Christians, Muslims and Hindus in positions of power.
The establishment of the Sikh Empire is commonly considered the zenith of Sikhism at political level,  during this time the Sikh Empire came to include Kashmir , Ladakh , and Peshawar.
A number of Muslim and Hindu peasants converted to Sikhism. The Empire's secular administration integrated innovative military, economic and governmental reforms.
The months leading up to the partition of India in , saw heavy conflict in the Punjab between Sikh and Muslims, which saw the effective religious migration of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus from West Punjab which mirrored a similar religious migration of Punjabi Muslims in East Punjab.
At present, the efforts to win independence and build a modern nation of Khalistan over the course of a century continue to reverberate. Nanak's mother was Mata Tripta, and he had one older sister, Bibi Nanki.
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From an early age, Guru Nanak Dev Ji seemed to have acquired a questioning and enquiring mind and refused as a child to wear the ritualistic "sacred" thread called a Janeu and instead said that he would wear the true name of God in his heart as protection, as the thread which could be broken, be soiled, burnt or lost could not offer any security at all.
From early childhood, Bibi Nanki saw in her brother the Light of God but she did not reveal this secret to anyone.
She is known as the first disciple of Guru Nanak. Even as a boy, his desire to explore the mysteries of life eventually led him to leave home. His brother-in-law, Jai Ram, the husband of his sister Nanki, obtained a job for him in Sultanpur as the manager of the government granary. One morning, when he was twenty-eight, Guru Nanak Dev went as usual down to the river to bathe and meditate. It was said that he was gone for three days. When he reappeared, it is said he was "filled with the spirit of God".
His first words after his re-emergence were: "There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim".
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With this secular principle he began his missionary work. Guru Nanak spent the final years of his life in Kartarpur where Langar free blessed food was available. The food would be partaken of by Hindus, rich, poor, both high and so-called low castes.
Guru Nanak worked in the fields and earned his livelihood. In , Guru Nanak chose Lehna , his disciple, as a successor to the Guruship rather than one of his sons. He was the son of a small trader named Pheru. He used to lead a group of Hindu worshippers to Jawalamukhi Temple every year. The whole Pheru family had to leave their ancestral village because of the ransacking by the Mughal and Baloch military who had come with Emperor Babur.
He was thrilled and decided to proceed to Kartarpur to have an audience darshan with Guru Nanak. His very first meeting with Guru Nanak completely transformed him. He renounced the worship of the Hindu Goddess, dedicated himself to the service of Guru Nanak and so became his disciple, his Sikh , and began to live in Kartarpur.
His devotion and service Sewa to Guru Nanak and his holy mission was so great that he was instated as the Second Nanak on 7 September by Guru Nanak. Earlier Guru Nanak tested him in various ways and found an embodiment of obedience and service in him. He spent six or seven years in the service of Guru Nanak at Kartarpur. He carried forward the principles of Guru Nanak both in letter and spirit. Yogis and Saints of different sects visited him and held detailed discussions about Sikhism with him.
Guru Angad introduced a new alphabet known as Gurmukhi Script, modifying the old Punjabi script's characters. Soon, this script became very popular and started to be used by the people in general.
He took great interest in the education of children by opening many schools for their instruction and thus increased the number of literate people.
For the youth, he started the tradition of Mall Akhara, where physical, as well as spiritual exercises, were held.
He also wrote 63 Saloks stanzas , which are included in the Guru Granth Sahib. He popularised and expanded the institution of Guru ka Langar that had been started by Guru Nanak.
Guru Angad travelled widely and visited all important religious places and centres established by Guru Nanak for the preaching of Sikhism. He also established hundreds of new Centres of Sikhism Sikh religious Institutions and thus strengthened the base of Sikhism. The period of his Guruship was the most crucial one. The Sikh community had moved from having a founder to a succession of Gurus and the infrastructure of Sikh society was strengthened and crystallised — from being an infant, Sikhism had moved to being a young child and ready to face the dangers that were around.
He was also the 1st guru of sikhi. Guru Amar Das became the third Sikh guru in at the age of He continued to preach the principle of equality for women, the prohibition of Sati and the practise of Langar.
Guru Amar Das also trained apostles, of which 52 were women, to manage the rapid expansion of the religion. It is recorded that before becoming a Sikh, Bhai Amar Das, as he was known at the time, was a very religious Vaishanavite Hindu who spent most of his life performing all of the ritual pilgrimages and fasts of a devout Hindu.
Bhai Sahib was so impressed and moved by these Shabads that he immediately decided to go to see Guru Angad at Khadur Sahib. It is recorded that this event took place when Bhai Sahib was 61 years old.
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Soon he became involved in Sewa Service to the Guru and the Community. He adopted Guru as his spiritual guide Guru. Bhai Sahib began to live at Khadur Sahib, where he used to rise early in the morning and bring water from the Beas River for the Guru's bath; he would wash the Guru's clothes and fetch wood from the jungle for 'Guru ka Langar'. He was so dedicated to Sewa and the Guru and had completely extinguished pride and was totally lost in this commitment that he was considered an old man who had no interest in life; he was dubbed Amru, and generally forsaken.
He established his headquarters at the newly built town of Goindwal, which Guru Angad had established. Soon large numbers of Sikhs started flocking to Goindwal to see the new Guru. Here, Guru Amar Das propagated the Sikh faith in a vigorous, systematic and planned manner. He divided the Sikh Sangat area into 22 preaching centres or Manjis, each under the charge of a devout Sikh. He himself visited and sent Sikh missionaries to different parts of India to spread Sikhism. Before leaving, Guru Amar Das prescribed the following routine for Sikhs:.
Guru Ji strengthened the tradition of ' Guru ka Langar ' and made it compulsory for the visitor to the Guru to eat first, saying that 'Pehle Pangat Phir Sangat' first visit the Langar then go to the Guru. Once the emperor Akbar came to see Guru Sahib and he had to eat the coarse rice in the Langar before he could have an interview with Guru Sahib. He was so much impressed with this system that he expressed his desire to grant some royal property for 'Guru ka Langar', but Guru Sahib declined it with respect.
He introduced new birth, marriage, and death ceremonies. Thus he raised the status of women and protected the rights of female infants who were killed without question as they were deemed to have no status. These teachings met with stiff resistance from the Orthodox Hindus. Guru Amar Das not only preached the equality of people irrespective of their caste but he also fostered the idea of women's equality.
He preached strongly against the practice of Sati a Hindu wife burning on her husband's funeral pyre.
Guru Amar Das also disapproved of a young widow remaining unmarried for the rest of her life. Guru Amar Das constructed "Baoli" at Goindwal Sahib having eighty-four steps and made it a Sikh pilgrimage centre for the first time in the history of Sikhism.
He reproduced more copies of the hymns of Guru Nanak and Guru Angad. He also composed according to some chronicles these were verses stanzas including Anand Sahib , and then later on Guru Arjan fifth Guru made all the Shabads part of Guru Granth Sahib.
When the time came for the Guru's younger daughter Bibi Bhani to marry, he selected a pious and diligent young follower of his called Jetha from Lahore.
Jetha had come to visit the Guru with a party of pilgrims from Lahore and had become so enchanted by the Guru's teachings that he had decided to settle in Goindwal. Here he earned a livelihood selling wheat and would regularly attend the services of Guru Amar Das in his spare time.
Guru Amar Das did not consider anyone of his sons fit for Guruship and chose instead his son-in-law Guru Ram Das to succeed him. He was born in Lahore to a Sodhi family of the Khatri clan. As a Guru one of his main contributions to Sikhism was organising the structure of Sikh society. Additionally, he was the author of Laava, the hymns of the Marriage Rites, the designer of the Harmandir Sahib, and the planner and creator of the township of Ramdaspur later Amritsar.
Make effort regularly to cleanse, bathe and dip in the ambrosial pool. Upon Guru's instructions, chant Har, Har singing which, all misdeeds, sins, and pains shall go away. Guru Har Gobind became the sixth guru of the Sikhs.
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He carried two swords — one for Spiritual reasons and one for temporal worldly reasons. One flag is towards the Harmandir Sahib and the other shorter flag is towards Akal Takht.
The first represents the reins of the spiritual authority while the later represents temporal power stating temporal power should be under the reins of the spiritual authority. As a very young child, he was disturbed by the suffering of a flower damaged by his robe in passing.
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Though such feelings are common with children, Guru Har Rai would throughout his life be noted for his compassion for life and living things.
His grandfather, who was famed as an avid hunter, is said to have saved the Moghul Emperor Jahangir's life during a tiger's attack.
Guru Har Rai continued the hunting tath at age 31, Guru tradition of his grandfather, but he would allow no animals to be killed on his grand Shikars. The Guru instead captured the animal and added it to his zoo. He made several tours to the Malwa and Doaba regions of Punjab.
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His son, Ram Rai, seeking to assuage concerns of Aurangzeb over one line in Guru Nanak's verse Mitti Mussalmam ki pede pai kumhar suggested that the word Mussalmam was a mistake on the copyist's part, therefore distorting Bani. The Guru refused to meet with him again.
The Guru is believed to have said, "Ram Rai, you have disobeyed my order and sinned. I will never see you again on account of your infidelity.
Sikhs are constrained by their Gurus to not believe in magic and myth or miracles.