Leadership And Nursing Care Management Diane Huber Pdf File

Leadership and nursing care management diane huber pdf file

Leadership and nursing care management diane huber pdf file

Photo used with permission from Photos. In nursing, leadership is studied as a way of increasing the skills and abilities needed to facilitate clinical outcomes while working with people across a variety of situations and to increase understanding and control of the professional work setting.

A long history and rich literature surround leadership theories, much of it from outside of nursing. Nursing has drawn from both classic and contemporary thinkers.

Leadership and nursing care management diane huber pdf file

Bennis made a strong argument for leadership, stating that quality of life depends on the quality of leaders. He noted three reasons why leaders are important: the character of change in society, the de-emphasis on integrity in institutions, and the responsibility for the effectiveness of organizations. Fiedler and Garcia argued that leadership is one of the most important factors that determine the survival and success of groups and organizations. Leadership theory often is discussed separately from management theory.

Some say leadership and management are two very different things. Yet clearly there is overlap in that one can be both leading and managing in some cases. The area of overlap may not be clear or explained. Some have seen management as a subset of leadership.

The premise of this book is that leadership and management are not identical ideas.

Leadership and nursing care management diane huber pdf file

This can be seen in their distinct definitions. If the delivery of nursing services involves the organization and coordination of complex activities in the human services realm, then both leadership and management are important elements. Thus although both are used to accomplish goals, each has a different focus.

For example, a nurse may use leadership strategies or management strategies to motivate others, but the desired outcome of the motivation is likely to be different.

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However, leadership and management have some shared characteristics. In this area of overlap, the processes and strategies look similar and may be employed for a similar outcome or blended together to accomplish goals. Leadership and management are equally important processes. Because they each have a different focus, their importance varies according to what is needed in a specific situation. Hersey and colleagues thought that leadership was a broader concept than management. They described management as a special kind of leadership.

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This view would position management as a part of leadership, not as a distinct concept. However, according to the definitions, characteristics, and processes, the concepts of leadership and management are different, but at the area of overlap they look similar. For example, directing occurs in both leadership and management activities the area of overlap , whereas inspiring a vision is clearly a leadership function. Both leadership and management are necessary.

An evidence-based approach to differentiating nursing leadership from management was taken to identify discrete competencies through an integrative content analysis of the literature base Jennings et al. Thus the overlap area appeared to be larger than previously thought.

Leadership and Nursing Care Management

However, leadership and management do serve distinct purposes. Perhaps it is time to apply leadership and management concepts and competencies by setting, level of role responsibility, career stage, and social context to more fully apply the evidence base to practice.

The focus of each is different: management is focused on task accomplishment and leadership is focused on human relationship aspects. They may be sequential, and they are interrelated. Clearly, a balance of the two is necessary. This overlap occurs where the two processes are integrated or synthesized to accomplish goals and where the same strategies are employed even though the goals may differ.

Arising from a drive to make things better, leaders use their power to bring teams together, spark innovation, create positive communication, and drive forward toward group goals. It also presents the opportunity to lead, challenge assumptions, consolidate a purpose, and move a vision forward.

Leadership is important for nurses because they need to possess knowledge and skill in the art and science of solving problems in work groups, systems of care, and the environment of care delivery. The nurse leader combines clinical, administrative, financial, and operational skills to solve problems in the care environment so that nurses can provide cost-effective care in a way that is satisfying and health promoting for patients and clients.

Such an environment does not simply happen; it requires special skills and the courage and motivation to move a vision into action. The IOM focus is on the following five areas of management practice:. The AONE nurse executive competencies are described in the following five domains of skill:. Taken together, these source documents overlap and converge on the primary attributes, knowledge domains, and skills that nurse leaders need to lead people and manage organizations in health care. Nursing is a service profession whose core mission is the care and nurturing of human beings in their experiences of health and illness.

Nurses have two basic roles: care providers and care coordinators. The first role is more often the role that is recognized. The acute care medical model in hospitals over time came to be the primary focus of attention and jobs for nurses. The delivery of nursing services involves the organization and coordination of complex activities.

Nurses use managerial and leadership skills to facilitate delivery of quality nursing care.

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Leadership is a unique role and function. It can be part of a formal organizational managerial position, or it can arise spontaneously in any group. Certain characteristics, such as being motivated by challenge, commitment, and autonomy, are thought to be associated with leadership. Effectiveness is a key outcome of leadership efforts in health care.

Leadership and nursing care management diane huber pdf file

It has been suggested that there is a scarcity of leaders and a crisis in leadership in nursing. Nurses can best respond by demonstrating vision, adapting to changes, seeking new tools for dealing with the new health care environment, and leading the way with client-centered strategies.

Both nurses and the health care delivery systems in which they practice need leaders. Exhibiting quiet but respected competence, a leader may be the wise or go-to person within the group, a superior problem solver, a strategic communicator, or someone who is emotionally intelligent and strong in interpersonal relationship skills.

Leaders may grow gradually out of a smoldering issue or erupt through a crisis event.

Leadership and nursing care management diane huber pdf file

Leadership is a natural element of nursing practice because the majority of nurses practice in work groups or units. Possessing the license of an RN implies certain leadership skills and requires the ability to delegate and supervise the work of others.

Leadership can be understood as the ability to inspire confidence and support among followers, especially in organizations in which competence and commitment produce performance.

Leadership is an important issue related to how nurses integrate the various elements of nursing practice to ensure the highest quality of care for clients. Every nurse needs two critical skills to enhance professional practice. One is a skill at interpersonal relationships.

This is fundamental to leadership and the work of nursing. The second is skill in applying the problem-solving process. This involves the ability to think critically, to identify problems, and to develop objectivity and a degree of maturity or judgment.

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Leadership skills build on professional and clinical skills. Hersey and colleagues identified the following three skills needed for leading or influencing:. Diagnosing: Diagnosing involves being able to understand the situation and the problem to be solved or resolved. This is a cognitive competency. Adapting: Adapting involves being able to adapt behaviors and other resources to match the situation. This is a behavioral competency. Communicating: Communicating is used to advance the process in a way that individuals can understand and accept.

Leadership and Management Principles

This is a process competency. Among the important personal leadership skills is emotional intelligence. Based on the work of Goleman , relational and emotional integrity are hallmarks of good leaders. This is because the leader operates in a crucial cultural and contextual influencing mode. Followers need to be able to depend on role consistency, balance, and behavioral integrity from the leader.

The four skill sets needed by good leaders are as follows:. Self-management: Ability to take corrective action so as not to transfer negative moods to staff relationships.

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Social awareness: An intuitive skill of empathy and expressiveness in being sensitive and aware of the emotions and moods of others. Relationship management: Use of effective communication with others to disarm conflict, and the ability to develop the emotional maturity of team members.

Gittell emphasized the centrality of relationship management because patient care is a coordination challenge. She noted that relational coordination drives quality and efficiency outcomes and health care performance.

Relational coordination focuses on relationships between roles rather than between individuals.

Leadership and nursing care management

These interpersonal relationship skills are crucial to the work of leadership. The chaos and complexity of the seismic shifts in health care structure, delivery, form, technology, and content have made visible the urgent need for leaders to emerge, mobilize, and encourage followers.

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Leaders are pivotal for connecting the efforts of followers to organizational goals. However, good leaders are anchors to the vision and the larger mission, guides to coping and being productive, and champions of energy and enthusiasm for the work.

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There are a variety of definitions of leadership. Leadership is defined here as the process of influencing people to accomplish goals. Key concepts related to leadership are influence, communication, group process, goal attainment, and motivation. Hersey and colleagues defined leadership as a process of influencing the behavior of either an individual or a group, regardless of the reason, in an effort to achieve goals in a given situation.

Burns noted that leadership occurs when human beings with motives and purposes mobilize in competition or conflict with others to arouse, engage, and satisfy motives. Most leadership definitions incorporate the two components of an interaction among people and the process of influencing.

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Thus leadership is a social exchange phenomenon. At its core, leadership is about influencing people. Bennis listed a number of distinctions between leadership and management.