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The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for years — The sultanate is noted for being one of the few powers to repel attacks by the Mongols from the Chagatai Khanate ,  causing the decline of Buddhism in East India and Bengal ,   and enthroning one of the few female rulers in Islamic history , Razia Sultana , who reigned from to Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent.
The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent.
During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization , and the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia , which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world.
History - Class 7 / Grade 7
The context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia : the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes. This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East , where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, and raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks.
Soon, Turks were migrating to Muslim lands and becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves eventually rose up to become rulers, and conquered large parts of the Muslim world , establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan , before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent. It is also part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled , agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history.
In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium. The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni. Aibak was of Cuman - Kipchak Turkic origin, and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk Slave dynasty not to be confused with the Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt.
After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations, and short-lived tenures.
Sample CBSE Class 7 Social Studies History The Delhi Sultans Worksheet Questions
Khalji assassinated Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khalji dynasty. The Khalji dynasty was of Turko-Afghan heritage. Firuz Khalji had already gathered enough support among the Afghans for taking over the crown. He was around 70 years old at the time of his ascension, and was known as a mild-mannered, humble and kind monarch to the general public.
Ala ud-Din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa and Devagiri for plunder and loot. His military campaigning returned to these lands as well other south Indian kingdoms after he assumed power.
He conquered Gujarat , Ranthambore, Chittor , and Malwa. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi Sultanate. They collected lots of war booty anwatan from those they defeated. Among the spoils was the Warangal loot that included the famous Koh-i-noor diamond.
Markets called "shahana-i-mandi" were created. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these "mandi" rules were severely punished, often by mutilation. Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in the kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.
Historians note Ala ud-Din Khalji as being a tyrant.
Free CBSE Class 7 Social Studies History The Delhi Sultans Worksheets
Anyone Ala ud-Din suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In , between 15, and 30, people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising. After Ala ud-Din's death in , his eunuch general Malik Kafur, who was born in a Hindu family in India and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power.
He lacked the support of Persian and Turkic nobility and was subsequently killed. Khusro Khan's reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq , killed him and assumed power in , thus ending the Khalji dynasty and starting the Tughlaq dynasty. The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from to nearly the end of the 14th century.
Rulers of Delhi Sultanate for SSC & Bank Exams – GK Notes as PDF
He was of Turko-Indian origins; his father was a Turkic slave and his mother was a Hindu. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled for 26 years. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of the Quran, Fiqh , poetry and other fields.
He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs ministers , extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses and used them to pay taxes and jizya.
On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate from the center of India by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in modern-day Maharashtra renaming it to Daulatabad , by forcing the mass migration of Delhi's population.
Those who refused were killed.
One blind person who failed to move to Daulatabad was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad. The capital then returned to Delhi.
Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq's orders affected history as a large number of Delhi Muslims who came to the Deccan area did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then-Delhi residents into the Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India. Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in , continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk.
The Vijayanagara Empire originated in southern India as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi Sultanate. Few survived the journey, and they were executed upon their return for failing. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty, and rebellion grew across the kingdom.
In his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught, and flayed alive.
Mamluk Dynasty - Delhi Sultanate - Crash Course On Medieval Indian History
Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom. Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat who were rebelling against the Delhi Sultanate. However, Bengal did not fall. Firuz Shah ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize the food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from the Yamuna river.
An educated sultan, Firuz Shah left a memoir. Firuz Shah Tughlaq also lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours.
Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu Brahmins from the jizya. The reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but also increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups. The death of Firuz Shah Tughlaq created anarchy and disintegration of the kingdom.
Timur , also known as Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic ruler of the Timurid Empire. He became aware of the weakness and quarreling of the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, so he marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way. He looted the lands he crossed, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur and his army raged a massacre.
The people and lands within the Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos, and pestilence. The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty  that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from to Annemarie Schimmel notes the first ruler of the dynasty as Khizr Khan , who assumed power by claiming to represent Timur.
His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab, unsuccessfully.
With the power of the Sayyid dynasty faltering, Islam's history on the Indian subcontinent underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel. The Lodi dynasty belonged to the Pashtun  Afghan Lodi tribe. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Varanasi then at the border of Bengal province , was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate.
After Bahlul Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Lodi and ruled from to The Muslim governors of Bihar agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of the Delhi Sultanate.
Sikandar Lodi led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura.
He also moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra ,  [ citation needed ] an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during the plunder and attacks of the early Delhi Sultanate period. Sikandar thus erected buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture in Agra during his rule, and the growth of Agra continued during the Mughal Empire, after the end of the Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi died a natural death in , and his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power.
Ibrahim did not enjoy the support of Afghan and Persian nobles or regional chiefs. Before and during the Delhi Sultanate, Islamic civilization was the most cosmopolitan civilization of the Middle Ages. It had a multicultural and pluralistic society, and wide-ranging international networks, including social and economic networks, spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia , leading to escalating circulation of goods, peoples, technologies and ideas.
While initially disruptive due to the passing of power from native Indian elites to Turkic Muslim elites, the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for integrating the Indian subcontinent into a growing world system, drawing India into a wider international network, which led to cultural and social enrichment in the Indian subcontinent. The Delhi Sultanate period coincided with a greater use of mechanical technology in the Indian subcontinent. While India previously already had sophisticated agriculture, food crops, textiles, medicine, minerals, and metals, it was not as sophisticated as the Islamic world or China in terms of mechanical technology.
Prior to the 13th century, there was no evidence of India having water-raising wheels with gears , or other machines with gears, pulleys , cams or cranks. These mechanical technologies were introduced from the Islamic world to India from the 13th century onwards.
Prior to the Delhi Sultanate, papermaking in the Indian subcontinent was largely limited to northwestern regions that were either under Muslim rule the Sindh and Punjab regions or with Muslim traders Gujarat.
Paper manufacturing eventually became widespread across Northern India following the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century, and eventually spread to Southern India between the 15th and 16th centuries. Early references to cotton spinning in India are vague and do not clearly identify a wheel, but more likely refer to hand spinning.
History of delhi sultanate pdf to excel
The earliest unambiguous reference to a spinning wheel in India is dated to , suggesting that the spinning wheel was likely introduced from Iran to India.
The worm gear roller cotton gin was invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th—14th centuries,  and is still used in India through to the present day. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production.