Hatchery M Nipponense Pdf Free

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Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense , as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem.

The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method.

The median lethal concentration h LC 50 of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M.

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Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. Semiconductor manufacturing has become a leading industry in some developing countries. Gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper are essential transition metals that are widely used for the manufacture of integrated circuits, electroplating, and photoelectric appliances.

These metals are released into the environment during manufacturing processes such as etching, wet polishing, and cleaning operations, which may produce much potentially hazardous waste [ 1 , 2 ].

Accidental industrial spills may lead to high concentrations of metal compounds in water, which have both acute and chronic toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Because these heavy metals do not degrade and thus accumulate in ecosystems, their toxic effects may be found at the molecular, cellular, and histological levels, even impacting homeostasis in organisms [ 3 , 4 ].

Individual components of heavy metals have been reported by different authors to have varying toxicological effects on aquatic organisms, and deaths of animals have also been reported at various concentrations [ 5 ]. Many studies have revealed that these metal compounds possess apoptotic, and carcinogenic properties [ 6 , 7 ]. Freshwater animals can be used for controlling pollution in three ways, involving three different time frames: 1 the determination of water quality criteria from which standards can be established, 2 monitoring the health of populations of fish in the field or in a hatchery, 3 providing an early warning system for potential harm to the aquatic environment [ 8 , 9 ].

Both acute and chronic toxicity tests provide detailed information for assessing environmental stress [ 10 ]. Acute toxicity results in particular provide practical critical values that can be used for establishing tentative water quality criteria related to novel toxicants.

Background

Suitable model species are needed to evaluate the water quality in aquatic ecosystems [ 11 ]. Freshwater swamp shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense is a common aquatic invertebrate widely distributed in the downstream of rivers throughout the eastern Asia-Pacific [ 12 ], and it is a dominant species in stream ecosystem near semiconductor manufacturing districts in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute lethal toxicity of concentrations of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper on juvenile M.

No mortality was detected in the control groups during laboratory static renewal tests h acute toxicity of the five metals.

We recorded mortality in whole exposure durations for freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense , exposed to varying concentrations of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper. Results demonstrated a positive relationship between the mortality rates of the exposed M. It is clear that the higher the concentration, the shorter the median lethal concentration h, h, and h LC 50 of the five metals to M.

Based on h LC 50 values, the ranking of the five metals from most toxic to least toxic was: copper, cadmium, antimony, gallium, and indium.

Median lethal concentrations LC 50 of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper to Macrobrachium nipponense. In toxicity testing of gallium, no mortality was observed in the group of M.

The h LC 50 of the M. Except for indium, the toxicity of gallium to M. One hundred percent mortality was detected in M.

The h LC 50 value obtained for antimony was 1. No mortality was recorded in M. The h LC 50 value obtained was 6. Compared to copper, a higher dose of cadmium is needed to obtain h and h LC Copper had stronger toxicity than cadmium in the present study.

Gallium lethality curves of Macrobrachium nipponense were determined at different gallium concentrations in the exposed environment. Antimony lethality curves of Macrobrachium nipponense were determined at different antimony concentrations in the exposed environment. Indium lethality curves of Macrobrachium nipponense were determined at different indium concentrations in the exposed environment. Cadmium lethality curves of Macrobrachium nipponense were determined at different cadmium concentrations in the exposed environment.

Copper lethality curves of Macrobrachium nipponense were determined at different copper concentrations in the exposed environment. Lin and Hwang [ 13 ] estimated the h LC 50 of gallium for tilapia larvae Oreochromis mossambicus to be Betoulle [ 14 ] reported that gallium III accumulates in the head, kidney, and blood in juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio.

Gallium also acts as a hepatotoxin and causes renal damage in treated C. Lin and Hwang [ 17 ] reported the h LC 50 value of antimony for tilapia larvae Oreochromis mossambicus as The present study found M. With the exception of deleterious information on the effect on Daphnia magna , little or no research is available documenting the effect of antimony on freshwater invertebrates [ 18 ].

Lin and Hwang [ 19 ] reported the h LC 50 value of indium for tilapia larvae Oreochromis mossambicus as The indium value of 6. This study is the first to examine the effects of indium on aquatic invertebrates.

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Both copper and cadmium are highly toxic for aquatic organisms; effects of short- and long-term exposure to these two metals have already been reported in a number of studies [ 20 — 22 ]. Wu and Chen [ 23 ] showed the h LC 50 value of cadmium for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is 1. As for copper, Karan et al. Acute lethal effects of copper were attributed to excess mucous covering the gill tissues, leading to the breakdown of respiratory function [ 26 ].

Regulation of different activities involving heavy metals does exist in an industrial country like Taiwan [ 27 ]. However, scanning the existing data base for surveillance studies in high risk populations, which mainly involve aquatic fauna and flora, turned up nothing.

The natural habitats of M.

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To maintain the balance of the local river ecosystems it is essential to know the susceptibility to these pollutants. We conclude that M. Moreover, no acute lethal effects were seen at concentrations of 0.

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These findings are in good agreement with the concept of a safe level one-tenth of the h LC 50 value as described by Sprague [ 28 ], and we propose them as biologically safe concentrations which can be used for establishing tentative water quality criteria with M. Freshwater swamp shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense were obtained from the local commercial suppliers.

Shrimp were transported to a glass aquarium in our laboratory which was equipped with a water-cycling device; dechlorinated tap water with a pH of 7. The temperature was maintained at Shrimp were acclimated for two weeks and fed an aquarium shrimp mixture every day. Shrimp 0. Laboratory static renewal tests were conducted to determine the median lethal concentration LC 50 for M.

Ten animals of similar size were randomly sampled and placed in L glass beakers. The control and each treated group were run in duplicate.

Competing interests. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Biol Res v. Biol Res. Published online Apr 1. Jen-Lee Yang. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Volume 504

Jen-Lee Yang, Email: wt. Corresponding author. Received Aug 13; Accepted Jan 2. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense , as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem.

Results The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at Conclusions Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. Background Semiconductor manufacturing has become a leading industry in some developing countries.

Results No mortality was detected in the control groups during laboratory static renewal tests h acute toxicity of the five metals. Table 1 Median lethal concentrations LC 50 of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper to Macrobrachium nipponense.

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Hatchery m nipponense pdf free

Discussion Lin and Hwang [ 13 ] estimated the h LC 50 of gallium for tilapia larvae Oreochromis mossambicus to be Conclusions Regulation of different activities involving heavy metals does exist in an industrial country like Taiwan [ 27 ]. Methods Freshwater swamp shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense were obtained from the local commercial suppliers. Footnotes Competing interests The author declares that they have no competing interests. References 1. Robinson AL. GaAs readied for high-speed microcircuits.

Pollution prevention in the semiconductor industry through recovery and recycling of gallium and arsenic from GaAs polishing wastes. Clean Prod Proc.