Groundnut oil cake pdf files
Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller LOE were analyzed for quality parameters. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality.
DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0. Protein, fat and ash contents were Tannins and aflatoxin B 1 were not detected. The increase of protein due to incorporation of DGCF into the products ranged from 5. All the products were acceptable and the order of preference for the products as indicated by adults fryums, chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo and children biscuits, laddoo , extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder varied.
Groundnut cake is a by product obtained after extraction of oil. The groundnut production in India was 9. The cake which is a rich source of protein is indigenously used as cattle feed or manure. Utilization of meal or defatted meal into food products could be an excellent vehicle for enhancing the utilization of groundnut protein in the diets of malnourished people in developing countries.
Groundnut flour produced from cake blends easily and enhances or enriches the nutritive value of wheat and other flour.
It has potential to be used as low fat groundnut concentrate, composite flour, in bakery products, breakfast cereal flakes, snack foods, multipurpose supplement, infant and weaning foods, extruded foods or fabricated food Venkataraghavan ; Gopala Krishna Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India has developed some processed foods paustic atta , composite grain, protein isolate, multipurpose supplement, infant and weaning foods, bal-ahar and miltone from edible groundnut meal Parpia Utilization of defatted groundnut meal with mild processing treatment is becoming increasingly popular in other countries.
Hence an attempt was made to obtain hygienically extracted defatted groundnut cake and to develop value added traditional and convenience food products through laboratory oil expeller. Groundnut cake produced in expeller press was procured from commercial oil expeller unit in Hyderabad.
The cake was then ground into powder using mixer cum grinder Sumeet, India and passed through 40 mesh sieve and mixed thoroughly.
The solvent extracted cake was procured from solvent extraction unit SEU in Medak district AP and passed through mesh sieve and mixed.
Nutrient composition moisture, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat and total ash of the DGC obtained from different process units was analyzed using AOAC procedures. The acid insoluble ash ISI , tannin Price et al. The physical properties of DGC studied were bulk density Ige et al.
DGC obtained from laboratory oil expeller LOE was selected for value addition into the traditional and convenience food products namely laddoo , chutney powder, fryums, biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks at different levels of incorporation. For ease of incorporation it was further milled in a laboratory mixer cum grinder Sumeet, India to obtain defatted groundnut cake flour DGCF.
Hydrogenated fat and powdered sugar were creamed till light and fluffy. DGCF and baking powder were sifted and added to the above mixture.
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Vanilla essence and SMP were added and mixed well. Pliable dough prepared by kneading with hand. Chana dhal, DGCF, coriander seeds, cumin seeds were roasted without oil. Whole red chillies, curry leaves were roasted in little oil.
All the above ingredients were powdered, sieved and mixed uniformly with turmeric powder and salt. Sago flour and DGCF were first mixed with small quantity of lukewarm water to make into a paste. Specified quantity of boiling water was then added and mixed briskly. Salt, roasted cumin seeds, asafoetida and colour were added during cooking.
The dried fryums were packed and could be used as and when needed after deep frying in vegetable oil.
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Rice flour and DGCF were added to specified quantity of lukewarm water and mixed thoroughly to form a slurry. The cooked material was then pressed in a house-hold sev machine extruder to get desired shape of snack. The dried snacks were packed and could be used as and whenever needed after deep frying in vegetable oil. Melted fat was mixed into the flour.
All the dry ingredients were added and mixed well. The dough was extruded into noodles by using a manual single screw hand press.
Two cups of water were boiled and one table spoon of edible oil and salt were added. The cooked noodles were strained on a sieve and held under cold running water to remove stickiness and get separate strands.
The cooked noodles were served after garnishing with fresh chopped vegetable sauted in little oil. Jaggery was heated with water till it dissolved. Dessicated coconut powder and roasted DGCF were added and mixed well.
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The different DGCF products were evaluated sensorily to find the maximum acceptable level of incorporation by a panel of 10 semi-trained judges using 5- point Hedonic scale following the method of Peryam and Pilgrim The products were evaluated for their appearance, texture, taste, flavour and overall acceptability. When the white core just disappeared, the time taken for cooking was recorded as minimum cooking time.
Weight was noted after keeping it in dessicator. Then similarly volume of noodles after cooking was measured and volume expansion was calculated Hundal et al.
For determination of percent oil uptake, weight of fryum was taken before and after frying. The fryums after frying were wiped with tissue paper to remove the adhering surface oil and weighed. The difference in weight was worked out and expressed as oil uptake in percentage. Percent expansion of fryums was calculated Jagadeesh et al. Percent oil absorption was calculated by taking weight of raw and fried snacks.
Biscuits were made in cartoon shape. As it was difficult to assess the diameter for spread ratio, the thickness of the biscuits was calculated.
The bulk density of chutney powder was determined by the method of Ige et al. For the control products the nutritive value protein, fat, carbohydrate and calories were calculated using the nutritive value of Indian foods Gopalan et al.
Moisture and ash contents of all the products were estimated by standard AOAC procedure.
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Storage stability of the products was assessed by determining moisture and free fatty acid contents AOAC , total viable bacterial count, coliform count, and yeast and mold count Cruickshank et al.
The data pertaining to sensory evaluation and effect of storage on shelf life of the products was analyzed using the analysis of variance ANOVA technique while paired t -test was used to compare physico-chemical parameters between the control and DGCF incorporated products Snedecor and Cochran Similar results for defatted flour were reported to range from 3.
In the traditional method of oil extraction the groundnut seeds are crushed without cleaning along with seed coats and some proportion of hulls to improve extraction efficiency. This results in a cake that is rich in fibre Tate et al. This could be due to the increase in protein content with higher level of incorporation of DGCF which might have resulted in increased Maillard reaction. Similar observations were reported for biscuits made with defatted groundnut flour Chetana and Reddy Sensory scores for products with different levels of defatted groundnut cake flour DGCF.
Similar observation was reported for defatted soy flour wadians Chetana and Reddy and soy biscuits Gandhi et al. Protein content of DGCF The results agreed with the observation for defatted groundnut flour by Puyed and Prakash The increase in protein content due to incorporation of DGCF was 5.
Similar observations were reported in defatted soy fortified biscuits Gandhi et al. The carbohydrate content of DGCF products was lower than control counterparts and the addition of groundnut flour to wheat flour might have decreased the total carbohydrate levels while increasing protein content. Similar observations were reported in defatted groundnut grits incorporated dambu a steamed, granulated dumpling product Agu et al.
The physical properties of all the products were on par with the control except cooking time noodles , expansion upon frying fryums , oil absorption fryums and extruded snacks , thickness biscuits and bulk density chutney powder. Similar result on substitution of wheat semolina with soy flour in spaghetti preparation was observed by Hundal et al.
Water uptake Similar observations were reported with spaghetti made with soy flour and pulse flour blends Lakshmi Devi and Vijay Khader ; Hundal et al. Although total solid loss for DGCF noodles 7. Increase in cooking loss upon DGCF incorporation could be attributed to dilution of gluten protein Hundal et al.
It may be due to higher water absorption capacity of DGCF. Earlier workers also observed higher water absorption by defatted soy flour in the preparation of soy-cereal papads Baby Latha and Bhat The oil absorbed by DGCF fryums Similar decrease in oil absorption of black gram wadians on substitution with defatted soy flour was reported Chetana and Reddy The uptake of oil by the fried product varied with the water content and biochemical make up of the product Math et al.
The lower oil uptake of DGCF fryums and extruded snacks may be attributed to lesser moisture content as compared to their respective controls. Earlier studies also reported that the papads with higher moisture content were found to absorb more oil on frying. DGCF fryums showed significantly lesser expansion upon frying The thickness of biscuits 0. Housewives and children liked all DGCF incorporated products.
Overall acceptability scores of housewives showed that the fryums were highly acceptable followed by chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo. In case of children the taste of DGCF biscuits was highly acceptable followed by laddoo , extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder.
The increase in moisture content of other products could be attributed to vapor transmission characteristics of the packaging material Jagadeesh et al. The increase in FFA could be due to increased moisture content, which promoted fat oxidation during storage Singh et al. Similar increases in FFA content in stored food products were reported for high protein pulse based noodles Vani and Manimegalai , soy fortified biscuits Singh et al.
It could be attributed to the anti microbial quality of the added spices such as garlic, cumin, turmeric in the chutney powder Raghavan Total bacterial count of all the products in the present study was less than this specified limit.