Clauses: Finite and nonfinite clauses
In linguistics , a non-finite clause is a dependent or embedded clause that represents a state or event in the same way no matter whether it takes place before, during, or after text production . In this sense, a non-finite dependent clause represents one process as a circumstance for another without specifying the time when it takes place as in the following examples:.
Finite and non finite clauses
Similarly, a non-finite embedded clause represents a qualification for something that is being represented as in the following examples  :. In meaning-independent descriptions of language, a non-finite clause is a clause whose verbal chain is non-finite ;  for example, using Priscian's categories for Latin verb forms, in many languages we find texts with non-finite clauses containing infinitives , participles and gerunds.
In such accounts, a non-finite clause usually serves a grammatical role — commonly that of a noun , adjective , or adverb — in a greater clause that contains it. A typical finite clause consists of a finite form of the verb together with its objects and other dependents i.
A non-finite clause is similar, except that the verb must be in a non-finite form such as an infinitive , participle , gerund or gerundive , and it is consequently much more likely that there will be no subject expressed, i.
Some types of non-finite clause have zero in one of the object or complement positions; the gap is usually understood to be filled by a noun from the larger clause in which the non-zero clause appears as is the subject "gap" in most non-finite clauses. These clauses are also called hollow non-finite clauses.
As a dependent clause, a non-finite clause plays some kind of grammatical role within a larger clause that contains it. What this role can be, and what the consequent meaning is, depends on the type of non-finite verb involved, the constructions allowed by the grammar of the language in question, and the meanings of those constructions in that language. Some examples are noted below:. According to Priscian, delenda is a participle because it agrees in number, case, and gender with a noun, namely Carthago , the subject.
6. Finite and Nonfinite Clauses
In Priscian's theory of POS, words are classified according to the inflectional paradigms that are created independent of the grammatical context the word is in. A misapplication of Priscian's verb categories for the modern notion of non-finite clause might thus result on the recognition of clauses where there are none.
In linguistics, both Generative Theory and Systemic Functional Theory of Language do not support analyses of Carthago delenda est in the way it is proposed above. A syntactic tree for the clause Carthago must be destroyed is shown below:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Halliday; Christian M. Halliday's introduction to functional grammar. SIL International. Loos; Susan Anderson; Dwight H. Day, Jr.
Clauses: finite and non-finite
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Glossary of linguistic terms. A Student's Introduction to English Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Recognize two clause categories
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