- El desarrollo de la pragmática en los niños
- El desarrollo de la pragmática en los niños
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View: session overview talk overview. For those of us responsible for English language provision it presented an opportunity to reconsider the kind of English that we should be teaching and how we might create courses which best prepared students for their studies. This recognizes that because the conventions of academic communication differ considerably across disciplines, identifying the particular language features, discourse practices, and communicative skills of target groups becomes central to teaching English in universities.
In this presentation I talk a little about this process, but mainly discuss the principles of disciplinary specific language on which it is based, drawing on my research over the last decade to highlight the disciplinary-specific nature of writing and argue for a specific view of teaching EAP.
Sin embargo, la estructura superficial de ambos procesos es superficialmente muy similar:.
El desarrollo de la pragmática en los niños
Esto nos ha permitido compararlas y buscar fuentes posibles para la transferencia. Esta es la base para poder considerar la posibilidad de tener transferencia desde las preguntas directas a las indirectas.
El docente puede elegir aquellas construcciones que el alumnado debe alcanzar para el nivel de competencia determinado. A final de curso se hace otra doble prueba similar a la primera. The present proposal aims at giving an answer to the dichotomies that are present in the literature of ditransitive constructions i. It analyzes which type of structure is syntactically transformed by an analogous process to passive structures. Considering these previous theoretical accounts, the following scenarios could take place when focusing on their acquisition: Hypothesis 1.
John gave a book to Mary to-dative b. John gave Mary a book DOC. A book is needed by the students monotransitive passive b. A book was given to Mary by John passive derived from ditransitive. Hypothesis 2.
El desarrollo de la pragmática en los niños
Hypothesis 3. Taking into account the Maturational Hypothesis Borer and Wexler , we expect passives to appear later in the development and to have a low incidence given their grammatical complexity if compared to active utterances. Thus, the derived ditransitive as a passive-like construction will appear later than actives, regardless of the type of ditransitive, as a result of maturation. Hypothesis 4. Our results show that there is a narrow correlation between the language development and the input regarding DOCs and passives.
Chomsky, Noam Holland: Foris Publications. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Jackendoff, R. Semantic Structures. On Shell Structure.
Machonis, Peter A Proficiency could be a key factor in minimal input settings where learners receive limited exposure to the foreign language.
More precisely, White and Ranta identified three developmental stages in the acquisition of gender agreement for L1 Francophone speakers of L2 English: pre-emergence, emergence and post-emergence stages. The three languages in this study, Spanish Basque and English, feature an interesting combination as they have different ways of expressing gender and possession: Spanish has uninterpretable gender agreement, whereas gender is interpretable in Basque and in English.
Concerning possessive agreement, in Basque pronouns do not show gender agreement but they agree in number with the possessor. In Spanish, the possessive agrees with the possessee in number, whereas in English the third person singular possessive pronoun agrees with the possessor in gender.
Thus, we extend existing research on gender agreement in the acquisition of L2 English to the acquisition of L3English. Participants completed a written description task, an oral elicitation task and an oral picture description task.
Each task consisted of experimental items, distributed in 12 experimental conditions, and fillers. The phenomenon of that-deletion, which implies the omission of the complementizer 'that' in finite complement clauses of verbs like 'think' or 'say', is the most frequent option in colloquial English She thinks that students enjoy the subject. Catalan and Spanish do not allow omission in the equivalent contexts.
Wulff et al found that learners use null-'that' more conservatively and that German learners of L2 English use more null-'that' than Spanish learners.
These results can be interpreted as an unfinished process of reassembly of the features Lardiere of the English complementizer.
If this is correct, one can wonder whether explicit instruction, which has been proved to be beneficial DeKeyser , Ellis , to mention a few , may compensate the difficulty attributed to the acquisition of interface conditions in the particular case of null-'that' use. To address these issues, three experimental groups and one control group were studied.
The experimental groups were two advanced groups of learners of L2 English and one intermediate-upper intermediate group. The participants were recruited from a Catalan University. A judgment task with 24 sentence stimuli 12 with overt 'that' and 12 with null 'that' was designed. Only four verbs were used 'say', 'think', 'hope' and 'tell'.
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Preliminary results show a non-significant effect of Treatment but an effect of Group: all groups prefer the expression of 'that' to its omission, regardless of having received specific instruction. The differences appear to be related more to the level of proficiency since advanced learners with and without treatment , but not intermediate learners, perform similarly to natives.
Moreover repeated measures ANOVA reveals a Group-Verb Type interaction in the null 'that' condition: differences between natives and intermediate learners are attested with all verbs and between natives and the advanced group without treatment only with the verb 'hope'. Finally, fewer differences are attested in the overt 'that' condition, which seems to indicate that the expression of 'that' is easier to accept than its omission.
While the first phenomenon shows that bilingual children are able to switch their languages within or between sentences e. This study aims at investigating what types of grammatical structures are involved in the natural interpreting produced by 2L1 bilingual children and how natural interpreting interacts with other language-contact phenomena like code-switching along the 2L1 bilingual acquisition process.
Our study evidences that natural interpreting can shed light on how bilingual grammars interact and how this phenomenon can occur independently from but concurrently with other language-contact manifestations in the production of 2L1 bilingual children. Translation universals in the oral production of bilingual children. Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts, 1 1 , 49— Recent developments in translatology 95— Peter Lang.
Cantone, K. Un nase or una nase? What gender marking within switched DPs reveals about the architecture of the bilingual language faculty. Lingua, , — Deuchar, M.
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Harris, B. How a three-year-old translates. Patterns of bilingualism — National University of Singapore Press. Translating as an innate skill. Language interpretation and communication — Plenum Press.
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Code-switching in bilingual first language acquisition. One speaker, two languages — Liceras, J.
Gender and gender agreement in bilingual native and non-native grammars: A view from child and adult functional-lexical mixings. Nicoladis, E. Parental discourse and code-mixing in bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 2, 85— MacWhinney, B. Hall, M.
Frank, E. Holmes, G. Pfahringer, B. Witten, I. Hamilton, New Zealand. Meza, P. Parodi, G.
fundamentos de una léxico- gramática del discurso ... - Biblioteca UCM
Discurso especializado e instituciones formadoras. Parodi ed.
Amsterdam: Benjamins. Venegas, R. Revista Signos. Revista Signos, , 40 63 , The Third Sector is a pillar that helps build bridges between the state and the civil society by detecting social needs, providing a response, and developing frameworks for social participation.
This compels actors involved to find new ways to respond to the demands of the millions of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion. Translation in the Third Sector is usually carried out by voluntary contributions from professional translators who, altruistically, use their own resources to perform the work.
TM databases, termbases, corpora and professionals are ultimately forced to create their own ad hoc materials Rico With a few exceptions The Rosetta Foundation , Thicke , no reference corpora, public sharing-data initiatives or collaborative experiences can easily be found in this context.
This contribution describes an experiment carried out with the aim of discovering if and how domain adaptation of MT engines is feasible in Third Sector translation. While traditional implementations of MT in the industry seek for improvement in productivity, speed, or quality, the ultimate purpose of the experiment presented here is to create momentum towards the association of translation technology and the Third Sector.