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Cambridge IELTS 6 PDF
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II th century Lack of Agricultural workers came from other parts o f Australian sports teams win more than their fair share of titles, demolishing rivals with seeming ease. How do they do it? A big part of the secret is an extensive and expensive network of sporting academies under pinned by science and medicine.
Another body, the Australian Sports Commission ASC , finances programmes of excellence in a total of 96 spor ts for thousands of sportsmen and women.
Both provide intensive coaching. B Inside the academies, science takes centre stage. The AIS employs more than I 00 sports scientists and doctors, and collaborates with scores oi others in universities and research centres.
AIS scientists work across a number of sports. They are backed up by technicians who design instruments to collect cata from athletes.
They all focus on one aim: winning. C A lot of their work comes down to measurement - everything from the exact angle of a swimmer's dive to the second-by-second power output of a cyclist.
This data is used to wring improvements out of athletes. The focus is on individLals, tweaking perfor mances to squeeze an extra hundredth of a second here, an extra millimetre there. No gain is too slight to bother with. It's the tint. To demonstrate how the system works, Bruce Mason at AIS shows off the prototype of a 30 analysis tool fer studying swimmers.
A wire-frame model of a champion swimmer slices through the water, her anms moving in slow motion. Looking side-on, Mason measures the distance between strokes.
CAMBRIDGE IELTS 6 listening test 1
From above, he analyses how her spine swivels. When fully developed, this system will enable him to build a biomechanical profile for coaches to use to help budding swimmers. It collects images from digital cameras 18 Reading running at 50 frames a second and breaks down each part of a swimmer's performance into factors that can be analysed individually - stroke length, stroke frequency. At the end of each race, SWAN spits out data on each swimmer.
D 'Take a look,' says Mason, pulling out a sheet of data.
Cambridge IELTS 6 PDF
He points out the data on the swimmers in second and third place. So why did he finish 35 hundredths of a second down?
With the Cooperative Research Centre for Micro Technology in Melbourne, they are developing unobtrusive sensors that will be embedded in an athlete's clothes or running shoes to monitor heart rate, sweating, heat production or any other factor that might have an impact on an athlete's ability to r un.
There's more to it than simply measuring performance. If lgA levels suddenly fall below a cer tain level, training is eased or dropped altogether. Soon, lgA levels start r ising again, and the danger passes. E Using data is a complex business.
Techniques like these have transformed Australia into arguably the world's most successful sporting nation. F Of course. Some years ago, the A IS unveiled coolant-lined jackets for endurance athletes. At the Atlanta Olympic Games in , these sliced as much as two per cent off cyclists' and rowers' times. But Australia's success story is about more than easily copied technological fixes, and up to now no nation has replicated its all-encompassing system.
Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter. You may use any letter m ore than once. NB 1 a reference to the exchange of expertise between different sports 2 an explanation of how visual imaging is employed in investigations 3 a reason for narrowing the scope of research activity 4 how some AIS ideas have been reproduced 5 how obs tacles to optimum achievement can be investigated 6 an overview of the funded support of athletes 7 how perfonnance requirements are calculated before an event Questions Classify the following techniques according to whether the writer states they A are currently exclusively used by Australians B will be used in the future by Australians.
C are currently used by both Australians and their rivals Write the correct letter. B or C, in boxes on your answer sheet. Write your answers in boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet.
Foreign products. The general worldwide decline in trade barriers. The economic opening of countries that have trad1t1onally been minor players is another.
But one force behind the import-export boom has passed all but unnoticed: the rapidly falling cost of getting goods to market. Goods, once they have been made. The real world, however. Cheap labour may make Chinese clothing competitive in America, but if delays In shipment tie up working capital and cause winter coats to arrive in spring, trade may lose its advantages.
C At the turn of the 20th century, agriculture and manufacturing were the two most important sectors almost everywhere. International commerce was therefore dominated by raw materials. WOOd and iron ore, or processed commodities, such as meat and steel.
Over time, however.
As a result, less transportation Is required for every dollar's worth of imports or exports. Most of the world's disk-drive manufacturing is concentrated in South-east Asia. This is possible only because disk drives.
Computer manufacturers in Japan or Texas will not face hugely bigger freight bills if they import drives from Singapore rather than purchasing them on the domestic market.
Distance therefore poses no obstacle to the globalisation of the disk-drive industry. F This is even more true of the fast-growing information industries. Films and compact discs cost little to transport , even by aeroplane. Businesses can locate based on other considerations. G In many countries deregulation has helped to drive the process along. But, behind the scenes, a series of technological innovations known broadly as containerisation and intermodal transportation has led to swift productivity improvements in cargo-handling.
Cambridge IELTS Practice Test 6
Forty years ago, the process of exporting or importing involved a great many stages of handling, which risked portions of the shipment being damaged or stolen along the way. The invention of the container crane made it possible to load and unload containers without capsizing the ship and the adoption of standard container sizes allowed almost any box to be transported on any ship.
By , dual-purpose ships, carrying loose cargo in the hold" and containers on the deck, were giving way to all-container vessels that moved thousands of boxes at a time.
H The shipping container transformed ocean shipping into a highly efficient, intensely competitive business.