- 14 Foremost Pros and Cons of the Green Revolution
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- PART 7 - LIMITATIONS OF GREEN REVOLUTION - INDIAN ECONOMY - INDIAN ECONOMY - CLASS 12 - IN HINDI
Green Revolution is a unique event in the agricultural history of Independent India. This has saved us from the disasters of hunger and starvation and made our peasants more confident than ever before. But it has its own inherent deficiency segments. Ever since its inception, the income gap between large, marginal and small farmers has increased, gap between irrigated and rainfed areas has widened and some crops have benefited more than the others, sometimes even at the cost of other crops.
It is neither product-neutral nor region-neutral and leaves uneven effects of growth on products, regions and classes of people. This has given birth to a plethora of socio-economic problems.
The fatigue of the Green Revolution is already visible. Still the main lacuna in the Green Revolution is that up till now it is an unfinished task. Some of the demerits or problems of Green Revolution are briefly discussed as under:.
The effect of Green Revolution is primarily felt on food-grains.
Although all food-grains including wheat, rice, jowar, bajra and maize have gained from the Green Revolution, it is wheat which has benefited the most. It has wrested areas from coarse cereals, pulses and oilseeds.
14 Foremost Pros and Cons of the Green Revolution
The HYV seeds in latter crops have either not been developed so far at all, or they are not good enough for farmers to risk their adoption. Consequently, their cultivation is fast becoming uneconomic and they are often given up in favour of wheat or even rice. The result is that an excess of production in two main food-grains wheat and rice and shortages in most others today prevail side by side.
Major commercial crops like cotton, jute, tea and sugarcane are also almost untouched by the Green Revolution. The rate of growth in production of pulses has declined from per cent per annum in the pre-Green Revolution period to only 0 — 79 per cent per annum during the period from to This is not good for a balanced growth of Indian agriculture.
Central Government has taken some steps to remove these imbalances. Green Revolution technology has given birth to growing disparities in economic development at interred and intra regional levels.
It has so far affected only 40 per cent of the total cropped area and 60 per cent is still untouched by it.
In short, Green Revolution affected only those areas which were already better placed from agricultural point of view. Thus the problem of regional disparities has further aggravated as a result of Green Revolution. The ratio between the lowest and highest yield- rates among the states for the period amounted to 1: 3. Regional disparities in crop yields can be reduced by evolving suitable disease resistant high-yield strains of paddy for most eastern parts and by developing irrigation facilities and a suitable dry farming technology for the arid and semi-arid western and southern regions.
It has been observed that it is the big farmer having 10 hectares or more land, who is benefited the most from Green Revolution because he has the financial resources to purchase farm implements, better seeds, fertilizers and can arrange for regular supply of irrigation water to the crops. As against this, the small and marginal farmers do not have the financial resources to purchase these farm inputs and are deprived of the benefits of Green Revolution Technology.
There were about 1, lakh holdings in India in out of which only 1. Francine R. Similar conclusion was drawn by G. Saini from his study of Ferozepur Punjab and Muzaffamagar U. Bhalla and G.
Green Revolution in India: The Other Side of the Coin
Chadha have found out that Green Revolution has benefited the farmers in general but one-third of them are small farmers with 2. Poverty line is measured at Rs. Another The land holdings are generally small in rice producing areas and the economic position of the farmers living in those areas is extremely miserable.
In short, Green Revolution has made the rich richer and rendered the poor poorer resulting in wide-spread social and economic tensions.
Green Revolution in India: Advantages and Disadvantages
Except in Punjab, and to some extent in Haryana, farm mechanization under Green Revolution has created widespread unemployment among agricultural labourers in the rural areas. The worst hit are the poor and the landless people. Agriculture under Green Revolution has not grown at a rate which was expected in the beginning. The differential rates of growth of different crops and their regional variations have already been discussed.
Some scholars have expressed serious doubts about the capability of HYV seeds itself. In actuality, these seeds are highly responsive to certain key inputs such as fertilizer and irrigation and as such they should have been called highly responsive varieties.
Shiva says that there is increasing evidence that the indigenous varieties could also be high yielding given the required doses of inputs. In a case study of Punjab, M. Sekhon and Manjeet Kaur of P.
Ludhiana have warned against the excessive use of groundwater, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. This will lead to large scale depletion of groundwater and will adversely affect the health of soil.
PART 7 - LIMITATIONS OF GREEN REVOLUTION - INDIAN ECONOMY - INDIAN ECONOMY - CLASS 12 - IN HINDI
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