Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Bible and describes the Exodus , which includes the Israelites ' deliverance from slavery in Egypt through the hand of Yahweh , the revelations at biblical Mount Sinai , and the subsequent "divine indwelling" of God with Israel. Exodus is traditionally ascribed to Moses , but modern scholars see its initial composition as a product of the Babylonian exile 6th century BCE , with final revisions in the Persian post-exilic period 5th century BCE.
There is no unanimous agreement among scholars on the structure of Exodus. One strong possibility is that it is a diptych i.
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Jacob 's sons and their families join their brother, Joseph , in Egypt. Once there, the Israelites begin to grow in number. Egypt's Pharaoh , fearful that the Israelites could be a fifth column , forces the Israelites into slavery and orders the throwing of all newborn boys into the Nile. A Levite woman Jochebed , according to other sources saves her baby by setting him adrift on the river Nile in an ark of bulrushes.
The Pharaoh's daughter finds the child, names him Moses , and brings him up as her own. But Moses is aware of his origins, and one day, when grown, he kills an Egyptian overseer who is beating a Hebrew slave and has to flee into Midian.
There he marries Zipporah , the daughter of Midianite priest Jethro , and encounters God in a burning bush. Moses returns to Egypt and fails to convince the Pharaoh to release the Israelites. God smites the Egyptians with 10 terrible plagues Plagues of Egypt including a river of blood, many frogs, and the death of first-born sons. Moses leads the Israelites out of bondage after a final chase when the Pharaoh reneges on his coerced consent Crossing the Red Sea and Yam Suph.
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The desert proves arduous, and the Israelites complain and long for Egypt, but God provides manna and miraculous water for them. The Israelites arrive at the mountain of God, where Moses's father-in-law Jethro visits Moses; at his suggestion Moses appoints judges over Israel.
God asks whether they will agree to be his people. They accept. The people gather at the foot of the mountain, and with thunder and lightning, fire and clouds of smoke, and the sound of trumpets, and the trembling of the mountain, God appears on the peak, and the people see the cloud and hear the voice [or possibly "sound"] of God.
God tells Moses to ascend the mountain. Moses goes up the mountain into the presence of God, who pronounces the Covenant Code a detailed code of ritual and civil law , and promises Canaan to them if they obey.
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Moses comes down the mountain and writes down God's words and the people agree to keep them. God calls Moses up the mountain where he remains for 40 days and 40 nights. At the conclusion of the 40 days and 40 nights, Moses returns holding the set of stone tablets. God gives Moses instructions for the construction of the tabernacle so that God could dwell permanently among his chosen people, as well as instructions for the priestly vestments , the altar and its appurtenances, the procedure for ordaining the priests, and the daily sacrifice offerings.
Aaron becomes the first hereditary high priest. God gives Moses the two tablets of stone containing the words of the ten commandments, written with the "finger of God". While Moses is with God, Aaron makes a golden calf , which the people worship. God informs Moses of their apostasy and threatens to kill them all, but relents when Moses pleads for them. Moses comes down from the mountain, smashes the stone tablets in anger, and commands the Levites to massacre the unfaithful Israelites.
God commands Moses to make two new tablets on which He will personally write the words that were on the first tablets. Moses ascends the mountain, God dictates the Ten Commandments the Ritual Decalogue , and Moses writes them on the tablets.
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Moses descends from the mountain with a transformed face; from that time onwards he has to hide his face with a veil. Moses assembles the Hebrews and repeats to them the commandments he has received from God, which are to keep the Sabbath and to construct the Tabernacle.
Jewish and Christian tradition viewed Moses as the author of Exodus and the entire Torah , but by the end of the 19th century the increasing awareness of discrepancies, inconsistencies, repetitions and other features of the Pentateuch had led scholars to abandon this idea. The story of the exodus is the founding myth of the Israelites, telling of their deliverance from slavery by Yahweh which made them his chosen people according to the Mosaic covenant.
Although mythical elements are not so prominent in Exodus as in Genesis , ancient legends may have an influence on the book's form or content: for example, the story of the infant Moses's salvation from the Nile is argued to be based on an earlier legend of king Sargon of Akkad , while the story of the parting of the Red Sea may trade on Mesopotamian creation mythology. Similarly, the Covenant Code the law code in Exodus — has some similarities in both content and structure with the Laws of Hammurabi.
These influences serve to reinforce the conclusion that the Book of Exodus originated in the exiled Jewish community of 6th-century BCE Babylon , but not all the sources are Mesopotamian: the story of Moses's flight to Midian following the murder of the Egyptian overseer may draw on the Egyptian Story of Sinuhe.
Biblical scholars describe the Bible's theologically-motivated history writing as " salvation history ", meaning a history of God's saving actions that give identity to Israel — the promise of offspring and land to the ancestors, the exodus from Egypt in which God saves Israel from slavery , the wilderness wandering, the revelation at Sinai, and the hope for the future life in the promised land.
A theophany is a manifestation appearance of a god — in the Bible, an appearance of the God of Israel, accompanied by storms — the earth trembles, the mountains quake, the heavens pour rain, thunder peals and lightning flashes. The theophany is therefore a public experience of divine law.
The second half of Exodus marks the point at which, and describes the process through which, God's theophany becomes a permanent presence for Israel via the Tabernacle. That so much of the book chapters 25—31, 35—40 describes the plans of the Tabernacle demonstrates the importance it played in the perception of Second Temple Judaism at the time of the text's redaction by the Priestly writers: the Tabernacle is the place where God is physically present, where, through the priesthood, Israel could be in direct, literal communion with him.
The heart of Exodus is the Sinaitic covenant.
God elects Israel for salvation because the "sons of Israel" are "the firstborn son" of the God of Israel, descended through Shem and Abraham to the chosen line of Jacob whose name is changed to Israel. The goal of the divine plan in Exodus is a return to humanity's state in Eden , so that God can dwell with the Israelites as he had with Adam and Eve through the Ark and Tabernacle, which together form a model of the universe; in later Abrahamic religions Israel becomes the guardian of God's plan for humanity, to bring "God's creation blessing to mankind" begun in Adam.
The overwhelming consensus among scholars is that the Exodus story is best understood as a myth and does not accurately describe historical events. While all but the most conservative scholars reject the biblical account of the Exodus,  a majority still believes that the story has some historical basis,   with Kenton Sparks referring to it as "mythologized history.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Second book of the Bible. This article is about the second book of the Bible.
The Book of Exodus
For other uses, see Exodus. Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy. Main article: Weekly Torah portion. Historical representations of the Stations of the Exodus.
Barmash, Pamela In Barmash, Pamela; Nelson, W. David eds. Exodus in the Jewish Experience: Echoes and Reverberations. Lexington Books. Childs, Brevard S The Book of Exodus. Collins, John J. Davies, Graham In Day, John ed. Dempster, Stephen G Dominion and Dynasty. InterVarsity Press. Dozeman, Thomas B Commentary on Exodus. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible.
Lecture 7. Israel in Egypt: Moses and the Beginning of Yahwism (Genesis 37- Exodus 4)
Dozeman, Thomas B. Methods for Exodus. Cambridge University Press. Faust, Avraham In Thomas E. Levy; Thomas Schneider; William H. Propp eds. Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher The Bible Unearthed. Simon and Schuster.
Fretheim, Terence E Westminster John Knox Press. Houston, Walter J In John Barton ed. Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press.
Johnstone, William D In James D. Dunn, John William Rogerson ed.
Is the isis religion copying from the book of exodus in hebrew
Eerdmans Bible Commentary. Kugler, Robert; Hartin, Patrick An Introduction to the Bible. McEntire, Mark Struggling with God: An Introduction to the Pentateuch. Mercer University Press. Meyers, Carol