Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture ,   the co-invention of collage , and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore.
Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon , and Guernica , a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces during the Spanish Civil War.
Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. After , the Fauvist work of the slightly older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were often paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.
Picasso's work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period — , the Rose Period — , the African-influenced Period — , Analytic Cubism — , and Synthetic Cubism — , also referred to as the Crystal period.
Who Was Pablo Picasso?
Much of Picasso's work of the late s and early s is in a neoclassical style, and his work in the mids often has characteristics of Surrealism. His later work often combines elements of his earlier styles. Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art. The surname "Picasso" comes from Liguria , a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
Pablo's maternal great-grandfather, Tommaso Picasso moved to Spain around Picasso's family was of middle-class background. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum.
Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats. Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. Ruiz was a traditional academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, and drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models.
His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork. They stayed almost four years. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son's technique, an apocryphal story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting,  though paintings by him exist from later years. In , Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, Conchita, died of diphtheria.
Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, and the jury admitted him, at just As a student, Picasso lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented a small room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings.
The two argued frequently. Picasso's father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid's Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando , the country's foremost art school.
Madrid held many other attractions. Picasso especially admired the works of El Greco ; elements such as his elongated limbs, arresting colours, and mystical visages are echoed in Picasso's later work.
Picasso's training under his father began before His progress can be traced in the collection of early works now held by the Museu Picasso in Barcelona, which provides one of the most comprehensive records extant of any major artist's beginnings.
In the same year, at the age of 14, he painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa , a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called "without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole history of Spanish painting.
In , his realism began to show a Symbolist influence, for example, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non-naturalistic violet and green tones.
What some call his Modernist period — followed. His exposure to the work of Rossetti , Steinlen , Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch , combined with his admiration for favourite old masters such as El Greco , led Picasso to a personal version of modernism in his works of this period.
Picasso made his first trip to Paris , then the art capital of Europe, in There, he met his first Parisian friend, journalist and poet Max Jacob , who helped Picasso learn the language and its literature. Soon they shared an apartment; Max slept at night while Picasso slept during the day and worked at night.
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These were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. Much of his work was burned to keep the small room warm. Soler solicited articles and Picasso illustrated the journal, mostly contributing grim cartoons depicting and sympathizing with the state of the poor. The first issue was published on 31 March , by which time the artist had started to sign his work Picasso.
Picasso" until The change does not seem to imply a rejection of the father figure. Rather, he wanted to distinguish himself from others; initiated by his Catalan friends who habitually called him by his maternal surname, much less current than the paternal Ruiz. Picasso's Blue Period — , characterized by sombre paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colours, began either in Spain in early , or in Paris in the second half of the year.
In his austere use of colour and sometimes doleful subject matter — prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects — Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas.
Starting in autumn of he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas, culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie , now in the Cleveland Museum of Art. The same mood pervades the well-known etching The Frugal Repast ,  which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. Blindness is a recurrent theme in Picasso's works of this period, also represented in The Blindman's Meal , the Metropolitan Museum of Art and in the portrait of Celestina The Rose Period —  is characterized by a lighter tone and style utilizing orange and pink colours, and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques.
The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso met Fernande Olivier , a bohemian artist who became his mistress, in Paris in The generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in this period is reminiscent of the — period i.
Their older brother Michael Stein and his wife Sarah also became collectors of his work.
10 Famous Pablo Picasso Paintings
Picasso painted portraits of both Gertrude Stein and her nephew Allan Stein. Gertrude Stein became Picasso's principal patron, acquiring his drawings and paintings and exhibiting them in her informal Salon at her home in Paris. The Steins introduced him to Claribel Cone and her sister Etta who were American art collectors; they also began to acquire Picasso and Matisse's paintings.
Eventually Leo Stein moved to Italy. In , Picasso joined an art gallery that had recently been opened in Paris by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. Kahnweiler was a German art historian and art collector who became one of the premier French art dealers of the 20th century.
He was among the first champions of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and the Cubism that they jointly developed.
Formal ideas developed during this period lead directly into the Cubist period that follows. Analytic cubism — is a style of painting Picasso developed with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colours. Both artists took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time share many similarities. In , Picasso was arrested and questioned about the theft of the Mona Lisa from the Louvre.
Life and career
Apollinaire in turn implicated his close friend Picasso, who had also purchased stolen artworks from the artist in the past. Afraid of a conviction that could result in his deportation to Spain, Picasso denied having ever met Apollinaire.
Both were later cleared of any involvement in the painting's disappearance. Between and , Picasso began a series of paintings depicting highly geometric and minimalist Cubist objects, consisting of either a pipe, a guitar or a glass, with an occasional element of collage. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works.
Biography Pablo Picasso
Picasso was devastated by her premature death from illness at the age of 30 in Braque and Derain were mobilized and Apollinaire joined the French artillery, while the Spaniard Juan Gris remained from the Cubist circle.
During the war, Picasso was able to continue painting uninterrupted, unlike his French comrades. His paintings became more sombre and his life changed with dramatic consequences. Kahnweiler's contract had terminated on his exile from France. During the spring of , Apollinaire returned from the front wounded. They renewed their friendship, but Picasso began to frequent new social circles. After returning from his honeymoon and in need of money, Picasso started his exclusive relationship with the French-Jewish art dealer Paul Rosenberg.
As part of his first duties, Rosenberg agreed to rent the couple an apartment in Paris at his own expense, which was located next to his own house.
This was the start of a deep brother-like friendship between two very different men, that would last until the outbreak of World War II. Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and other dimensions of the life of the rich in s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo Picasso,  who would grow up to be a motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khokhlova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict.
During the same period that Picasso collaborated with Diaghilev's troupe, he and Igor Stravinsky collaborated on Pulcinella in Picasso took the opportunity to make several drawings of the composer. Picasso's marriage to Khokhlova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Khokhlova to have half his wealth.
The two remained legally married until Khokhlova's death in Picasso wrote of Kahnweiler "What would have become of us if Kahnweiler hadn't had a business sense? Parade , , curtain designed for the ballet Parade. The work is the largest of Picasso's paintings.
In February , Picasso made his first trip to Italy. Picasso's paintings and drawings from this period frequently recall the work of Raphael and Ingres.
Les Demoiselles was reproduced for the first time in Europe in the same issue. He did at the time develop new imagery and formal syntax for expressing himself emotionally, "releasing the violence, the psychic fears and the eroticism that had been largely contained or sublimated since ", writes art historian Melissa McQuillan.
Pablo Picasso, , Pierrot , oil on canvas,